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This specific wheel was invented and patented by polish philosopher Józef Maria Hoene Wroński at 1836 in France. The main idea was to make a medium between an inner wheel and a ground. This medium was also a wheel and could be easily adopted to a quality of the ground. This way a heavy car could go directly on the ground instead of on steel rails.

There are two ways of making such a wheel: pneumatic and mechanical.

In the pneumatic wheel spokes connecting inner and external wheels are made with compression cylinders.

Cylinders can be active when a gas is pumped into them, or passive when a gas is only compressed and unpressed as in a gas spring. When gas springs are pulling they tend to hold the inner axle in the place of the external axle (fig.1).


When gas springs are pushing they tend to rotate the inner wheel in relation to external wheel (fig.2).


Depending on a pressure in them the axle of rotation of the inner wheel can be in the same place or lower comparing with the axle of the external wheel (fig.3,4).

fig.3 fig.4

In the mechanical wheel there are made inner roads in the external wheel for points of the circumference of the inner wheel (fig.5). These roads are circles.


At last the inner wheel need not be a wheel since it only holds cylinders or sliders on the inner roads. For instance, if there are three cylinders it may be a triangle.

The number of this inner roads as well as cylinders can be any but greater then one. The inventor made models of these wheels with ten inner roads. Models are stored in the Biblioteka Kurnicka Polskiej Akademii Nauk in Kurnik near Poznań in Poland (fig.6).


June 2014